Lesson 5

We will learn the other declensions of the weak N-stem now.
The neuter form can be learned with the word hairto (heart)

Nom. Sing. hairto

Gen. Sing. hairtins

Dat. Sing. hairtin

Acc. Sing. hairto

Nom. Plur. hairtona

Gen. Plur. hairtane

Dat. Plur. hairtam

Acc. Plur. hairtona

Two exceptions are namo (name) and wato (water), these words lose the “o” in the plural form and have a plural genitive namne and watne.

So after omiting -o this noun can be declined with:

-o, -ins, -in, -o, -ona, -ane, -am, -ona
The weak masculine noun, or m. N is quite similar to the neuter form:

Frauja (lord)

Nom. Sing. Frauja

Gen. Sing. Fraujins

Dat. Sing. Fraujin

Acc. Sing. Frauja

Nom. Plur. Fraujans

Gen. Plur. Fraujane

Dat. Plur. Fraujam

Acc. Plur. Fraujans

In all weak nouns, the nominative and accusative plural forms are the same.

Use the same as above, but instead of -o you use -a, and the plural nom. and acc. is -ans instead of -ona.

Sometimes you have adjectives which are declined weakly, especially comparatives. This means that they look like these weak nouns, so for example the word auhuma (higher).

If it’s used for a masculine noun, it has the same declension as the masculine frauja, so:

auhuma frauja = the high lord

auhumins fraujins = of the higher lord

If the noun is dags, which is masculine, it’s declined like the weak frauja too:

auhuma dags = the higher day

auhumins dagis = of the higher day

Or the feminine giba (gift):

auhumo giba = the higher gift, because the feminine weak noun “laiktjo” ends with -o too.
The personal pronouns are words like “I” and “you”. You know the nominative declension, let’s learn the dative and accusative forms:

Personal pronoun, in the order of nominative, dative, accusative

I: ik, mis (me), mik (me)

(So ik = nominative, mis = dative, mik = accusative)

You: þu, þus, þuk

He: is, imma, ina

She: si, izai, ija

We: weis, uns, uns

We two: wit, ugqar, ugqar

You (plural): jus, izwis, izwis

You two: jut, igqis, igqis

They (masculine): eis, im, ins

They (feminine): ijos, im, ijos

They (mixed): ija, im, ija

The genitive forms are:

my: meins

your: þeins

his: is (same in all declensions)

her: izos (same in all declensions)

our: unsar

our (two): ugqar

your (plural): izwar

your (two): igqar

their (masculine/mixed): ize (stays the same in all declensions)

their (feminine): izo (stays the same too)


Vocabulary:

heart – hairto (n. N)

water – wato (n. N)

lord – frauja (m. N)

fish – fisks (m. A)

cup – stikls (m. A)

always – sinteino

almost – nehwa

to there – jainþ

to here – hidre

today – himma daga

yesterday – gistradagis

higher – auhuma (comparative A)

next – iftuma (comparative A)

that – þata

word – waurd (n. A)
Translate:

(For the phrases with “I”, use either the masculine or feminine form, depending on which form you use for yourself, so if you are female, use that form, otherwise the masculine one. Some people believe in multiple genders, there are only two genders)

1. I ‘m sick – …

2. Their (m.) lord isn’t here today, but he is in their heart. – …

3. What’s that? – …

4. The word of the next day – …

5. I want a cup of water – …

6. Do you want water? – …

7. I want you – …

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